I. The Great Balance is the first principle of the universe, and fundamental law of nature, society and man.
“Greatness” refers to great nature, great society. “Great men” are people of good moral standing; “great laws” are fundamental ones; “great minds” are people’s inner world, and “in general” is of a relative meaning.
“Balance” is the first principle of the cosmos, and the starting point, process, state, terminal and law of development. Balance is the reason for existence. It is a “being” of “reason” and of “thing” as well, and more, the same being of “matter, reason, cause and result.”
II. “Balance” in the past:
“平衡”最早见于《汉书·律历志 上》“准正，则平衡而钧权矣。”① 平衡指衡器两端承受的重量相等。引申为相关方面在数量或质量上均等或大致相等。② 平衡亦称“均衡”。过去在哲学上指矛盾暂时的相对统一或协调。事物发展稳定、有序的标志之一。平衡与不平衡相对，二者相互转化、相反相成。一般分为动态平衡和静态平衡。
“Balance” first appeared in Part One, Bibliography of Calendar, the History of Han: “With the criterion in place, it is balanced and the two ends are of the same weight.” 1. Balance refers to the weights at the two ends of the beam are equal. By extension it means related aspects are equal or roughly equal in quantity or quality. 2. Balance, also called “equilibrium,” refers to temporary relative unity or coordination of contradictions in philosophy. It is one of symbols that things develop in a steady and orderly way. Balance is opposed to imbalance; the two change into each other, oppose yet complement each other. It is generally divided into dynamic balance and static balance.
III. Balance theories in the past:
1. Wang Chong (27-97 A.D.), materialist philosopher of the Eastern Han Dynasty, believed that “Qi between heaven and earth produces all things on earth. It is like when Qi of parents is integrated, from which a child is born.” (Nature, Discussion about Balance) The self-movement of “Qi” produces all things, while there is no conscious Creator.
2. Auguste Comte of France and Herbert Spencer of Britain advocated the “Balance Theory” in the field of philosophy, also called “Equilibrium Theory.” Its major content is a “metaphysical theory to make absolute the relative balance of development.” It holds that balance and gradual change is normal, whereas imbalance is abnormal.
3. Nikolai Bukharin of former Soviet Union put forward the concept of “balance of movement” about economic balance and social balance. The concept is to achieve the balance of natural economic system of former Soviet Union by unbalanced measures against law of value in transitional periods, such as forced grain collecting, voluntary labor and equal distribution.
4. In recent years people put forward concepts of balance or balance theories from the industrial perspective, such as the “self-organization balance” in the “Dissipative Structure” by Ilya Prigogine, the “balance between freedom and responsibility” by British scholars, and the “balance between population and resources” and the “balance theory on administrative law” proposed by professors Ma Yinchu and Luo Haocai of Beijing University.
The concept of “balance” discussed in above balance theories is basically static.
IV. “Balance” in the Great Balance philosophy:
“Balance” in the Great Balance philosophy is the first principle of the cosmos, a changing being. It is the starting point, process, state, terminal and law of development. Balance is “golden mean,” “middle” and “harmony,” and the highest level is “appropriateness.” Balance, also called equilibrium, is the state of development, shown as coordination, harmony, victory, success, concern, delight, love, happiness, respect, orderliness, normality, profit, favorable weather, existence… Balance and imbalance “oppose to each other, but are rooted in each other; integrate and repeat in cycles, develop into a unified one, and exist from beginning to end,” constructing a pair of philosophical concepts.
“大平衡”既是 “理”的存在，又是 “物”的存在，更是二者的融合自因自为自然的存在。这个“存在”可以是“有”可以是“无”，还可以是“有、无”的共同存在。这个“存在”既可以“风平浪静、和风细雨、轻歌曼舞”，还可以“飞沙走石、枪林弹雨、天崩地裂”。平衡是“渐变突变、持续间断、有序无序、和谐抗争”的有机统一。是一个动态的、相对的、大致和大体的宇宙系统的存在。
The “Great Balance” is a being of “reason” and of “matter” as well; and furthermore, it is a natural being combining the two with self cause and self conduct. The “being” can be “existence” or “nonexistence” or one combing “existence” and “nonexistence.” The “being” can “be calm and tranquil, like a gentle breeze and light rain, sing softly and dance with grace and ease;” it can also “whirl up sand and roll along stones, be roaring guns and flying bullets, and make the sky fall and the earth crack.” Balance is an organic unity of “gradual change and sudden change, constancy and interruption, order and disorder, harmony and conflict.” It is a static, relative, and general being.
As for the same thing, people may have different views from different perspectives. Some consider it “balanced” while others believe that it is “unbalanced.” Some deem it “unbalanced” while others consider it “balanced.” This is a normal phenomenon and will exist forever. But whether it is “balanced or not” should be judged by comments from the people and historical development.
V. Comparison between present balance and past balance:
In the past people believed that calmness, orderliness, harmony, reason or living in peace was balance; if not, it was not balance. The “balance” discussed in the Great Balance Theory is different from that in physics, chemistry, economics or some ordinary philosophical studies. Moreover, we cannot just think that balance is harmony, stability, proceeding in an orderly and gradual way, no confrontation, and no conflict. On the contrary, the Great Balance Theory not only does not exclude conflict, but also holds that during the process that things develop towards self-balance, sometimes the conflict is so violent, even ruthless and hard to imagine. Besides, conflict is not always bad; it can probably be good. Things usually grow, develop and get stronger in conflict. As “the opposite is the source of movement,” balance starts from conflict. Balance usually grows in conflict. Without conflict, there is no balance. But the goal of conflict is balance, not conflict. Conflict is the way while balance is the goal.
In summary, balance is the noumenon of the cosmos. When nothing came into being it was there; when things were born it was there; and even at the singularity point where all disappeared, it was still there… All are different states of balance. Balance is the organic unity of theism and atheism, matter and spirit, being and consciousness. They are two forms of address for the same thing. If there were no balance, there would be no world. “Balance” exists independently, and at the same time is present in all things as the reason for their existence. And therefore, balance is not absolute; it exists in opposition to everything in the world. Balance is the fundamental mechanism for the existence and development of nature, society, and man, and myriad of things exist in this mechanism.
VI. The objects for research of the Great Balance Theory are nature, society and man. The goal is to improve man himself and guarantee subsistence.
The highest level of the Great Balance Theory is “harmony” among the heaven, earth and man.
The prerequisite idea of the Great Balance Theory is “honesty and credit.” “Without honesty there would be no substance,” and “without credit, one cannot get along with the world.” Truth is power.
VII. The five basic opinions of the Great Balance Theory:
1. All the things in the world are always in dynamic movement between balance and imbalance. (This is the general state.)
Natural sciences tell us that all those in nature, from elementary particles as small as no inner structure to the cosmos without boundary, from primitive organism to man of today, are without exception in spontaneous and eternal evolution and periodic cycles -- emergence, growth, expansion, disappearance and orderly and successive movement.
Examples include: in nature, alternation between the sun and moon, rotation of four seasons, and growth and harvest; in human society, fighting or yielding for interest, confrontation and dialogue, war and peace, economy and humanities; man’s subsistence, health, entry into schools of a higher grade, courtship, employment, marriage, pay raise, promotion, rejoice, happiness, honor, etc. Man and nature, person and person, man and himself combine and mingle to form a holographic scene of orderly and successive movement, penetrating and transformation, and of cause-and-effect cycle. The scene is full of contradictions, and permeated with law of “the unity of opposites” for contradiction. The movement of everything is the law of “the unity of opposites,” a movement of “reason.” The Great Balance Theory holds that the movement should also be movement of the cause of “unity of opposites” -- “balance and imbalance” and, “matter and reason.” And therefore, all the things in the world are without exception in dynamic movement between balance and imbalance.
2. Things have the nature to keep and develop towards self-balance. (This is the law of self cause.)
The nature of things developing toward self-balance is their instinct to “seek subsistence,” shown as movements instinctively following laws. All things in the world have the nature to pursue self-balance, such as the natural cycle of the sun and moon, and the revolution and rotation of the earth; newly born animals’ instinct to look for food, their birth, growth, maturity, death, metabolism, and seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages; the birth, growth, collection and photosynthesis of plants, and “self-purification function” of ecosystem; immunity function of human body, automatic regulation of body fluid, and automatic repair of DNA in cells; automatic increase and self-regulation of the cosmic entropy power; natural cycles of food chain and the chain of producing and overcoming each other; and the “self-protection” of electrons inside the atom. All these are their inborn instinct to seek subsistence, not artificial. The instinct drives things to try hard to a balanced state when unbalanced, keep balance when reaching a balanced state, and then look for new balance till infinite…
The “self-purification function” of nature and the ecological environment is that when the air, water and soil are polluted, they can, by physical, chemical or biological actions, make their components “restore automatically” to original functions. The “trend toward a steady state” is the most fundamental premise and condition constructing creatures and nature. “Self-regulation” is a basic guarantee to maintain such a steady state. Creatures’ “metabolism” has the ingenious mechanism of automatic coordination and self-regulation…
n the social field, relations of production fit in with the development of productive forces in one aspect, and then the two can coordinate with the society and achieve balance at a certain level. Although such dynamic balance is often broken, it then spontaneously pursues new balance. Otherwise, such relations of production cannot come into being. So are the superstructure and the economic base. In the commodity economy, although the commodity price rises and falls, in general it is always fluctuating “by itself” around the value towards balance.
We call “self-regulation, automatic restoration, automatic coordination, self-purification function, and self-tendency toward a steady state” mentioned above “self-movement,” not arranged by external forces. “Self-movement” is a characteristics of things that the impetus for development comes from inside. All the things in nature and human society contain contradictions inside, which tend to repel, oppose each other and unite. Such a “tendency” or “internal factor” causes the “self-movement” of things. And this “nature,” the nature of all things inclining to self-balance for subsistence, is something like the “self-stability and balance” of human body in Chinese medicine, which is called “immunity function of the human body itself” in Western medicine. In the case of "self-movement" of all things, "external factors are the conditions for change, internal factors are the basis for change. The internal factors function through external factors."
According to Aristotle, movement in nature is classified into two kinds: natural movement and forced movement. Light things have the “light nature,” such as gas and fire, going up naturally; heavy things have the “heavy nature,” such as water and earth, going down naturally. Such natural movements are decided by their nature. Everything in the world has its natural position and tends to go to stay at its proper place… The natural place for light things is high above while that for heavy things is down below. Controlled by the tendency to stay at the proper place, they automatically and instinctively move upwards or downwards. Although forms of movement are different, the goal is the same – to survive or to be alive. If things did not pursue instinctively “self cause, self conduct, natural presence, and self existence,” and just relied on external conditions, all things would not survive. The driving force of development originates in the nature of the tendency toward self-balance – subsistence.
Although of all these there is no absolute balance as there is relative and better balance, it is certain that things have the nature to maintain and develop toward self-balance.
3. The development of things is an eternal movement from balance to imbalance, to new balance… (This is the law of movement.)
As things have the “nature toward self-balance,” they surely have friction, confrontation, offence and even conflict with “movements of relevant things toward self-balance.” The process continues until the two parties achieve a relative “dynamic balance.” However, the balance will soon “be influenced and broken by the movements of other relevant things toward self-balance” to form new imbalance… And then come the integrated and alternative movement of “balance – imbalance – new balance – new imbalance…” All the things in the cosmos are in this eternally cycling “field.”
Johann W. Goethe once said that the great nature has a sensitive feature of balance. It waves continuously within prescribed limit, which produces various phenomena we see in time and space. The Great Balance Theory holds that such phenomena are eternal movements, balanced sometimes and unbalanced at times… People live in endless contradictions: as old contradictions are solved, there will be a period of peace (relative balance), but soon new ones emerge, breaking present balance and causing new imbalance. And then new contradictions are solved to achieve new balance. Such a cycle continues unceasingly, shown as a curve “rolling” forward and “spiraling” upward. Professor Lao Lizi from the United States once said, “It is the general law for development from balance to imbalance, then to new balance…”
Therefore, the development of things is an eternal movement from balance to imbalance, and then to new balance…
4. The existence of the opposite has “advantages and disadvantages.” To see it in a dialectical way, the one and its opposite oppose yet complement each other. (This is the law of dialectics.)
Nothing is absolutely right in the world, so is the existence of the opposite. Usually people only see disadvantages of the opposite, and want to get rid of it as soon and as thoroughly as possible. They don’t know that the existence of the opposite has its advantages:
First, it is to help people increase their vigilance and crisis awareness. Secondly, it is to help make up each other’s deficiencies and improve subsistence capability. Thirdly it is to help people grow stronger in competition. However, repeated small mistakes make a big mistake.
In some sense, we grow stronger depending on our opponent, because he is a “friend” who is most captious, quickest to find our weaknesses, and ablest to put us into a deathtrap. If the opposite disappears, one will be in danger and moreover disappear with it. If the opposite disappears completely, one will have a new opposite broken away from its inside. Things are wiped out most possibly by the opposite inside. Some do not understand, and thus they are afraid when the opposite appears, and are happy when the opposite disappears. They don’t know that the existence of the opposite can usually make people act cautiously and achieve success more easily. And the disappearance of the opposite always leads to slackened prevention and in turn, failure. Sometimes, when the common enemy is defeated, friends can turn into enemies. A patient who just recovered will suffer a relapse if letting down his guard; a strong person may die suddenly because of neglect. It is the same with the human society. Stimulated by the opposite, people can make vigorous efforts and go all out to achieve success; otherwise they may die “in peace” while not knowing whether it is worthy.
As ancient men said, “Anything has its opposite.” Yin cannot exist without Yang, and Yang cannot grow without Yin; the two grow together. Viruses can help man evolve. It is a natural law and normal phenomenon that the opposite exists. At any time the opposite is there, and nothing can get rid of its opposite and exists independently. The human history over thousands of years has proven that equality and cooperation, mutual benefit and win-win, and harmony and development are the best choice. We are afraid that people do not understand and try to get rid of the opposites out of perceptual cognition, and will be eradicated by the “inside opposite” on the contrary. If people can find deficiency by way of the opposite, accept adversity and take advantage of it, and absorb forces from the opposite to strengthen themselves, they then obtain the great wisdom of life. And thus:
The existence of the opposite has “advantages and disadvantages.” To see it in a dialectical way, the one and its opposite oppose yet complement each other.
5. Things develop toward best, comprehensive balance. (This is the general direction.)
We can see easily from the above four points: Everything in the world interacts with another and has the nature to develop toward self-balance. In the process, it surely has contradiction, friction, dispute, conflict and even struggle with relevant things in the same movement. The “imbalance” will push the thing itself and relevant things to develop toward “new and comprehensive balance;” when they achieve certain balance, similar movements of other relevant things will always break present balance, leading to the appearance of “new movement due to imbalance.” And then the “new imbalance” moves toward “new balance” instinctively, repeatedly, and in a multidimensional way. Although there are setbacks and twists and turns in the movement, it progresses in the direction of best, comprehensive, dynamic balance. And thus:
Things always develop toward best, comprehensive, dynamic balance.
VIII. Philosophical categories of the Great Balance Theory: balance and imbalance.
As from different perspectives, people have different views on balance and imbalance. And the two are the natural tendency and states of the development of things. They are an integral being blending organically conflict, integration, harmony, struggle, diversity and unity.
“Balance and imbalance” construct the pair of philosophical categories of the Great Balance Theory. According to the principle of priority -- “the fundamental and the incidental, the start and the end, the early and the late,” and the order of importance and emergency, the big category can be divided into eight smaller ones:
1. True balance and false balance
2. Internal balance and external balance
3. Long-term balance and short-term balance
4. Traditional balance and modern balance
5. Systematic balance and leveled balance
6. Individual balance and collective balance
7. Subjective balance and objective balance
8. Active balance and passive balance
IX. Classification in the Great Balance Theory:
The abovementioned balance and imbalance can be classified into three categories: big, medium and small, such as the nation, the collective and the individual… And each category is subdivided into beneficial, neutral and harmful, such as just, neutral and unjust. The principle of the Great Balance Theory corresponding to this is to prolong useful balance and imbalance as much as possible, shorten harmful balance and imbalance as much as possible, and cause neutral balance and imbalance toward useful balance or imbalance as much as possible.
The Applied Philosophical Balance Theory emphasizes that balance and imbalance are of the same importance. The two oppose each other, unite dialectically, worm upward and move forward in an orderly way. As for when to maintain balance, when to move toward balance, when to break balance to cause imbalance which then develops toward new balance…we should follow the criterion of “quasi-balance” – orderly increase and decrease of overall interests, rather than stay at a balanced state. Extreme dynamic gives birth to stillness and extreme stillness gives birth to dynamic. Balance often emerges at a time of a worst imbalance, and imbalance often appears at a time of the best balance.
In reality, the Great Balance Theory include: balance theories of Industry, Agriculture, Business and Trade, Education, Media, Military Affairs, Biology, Laws, Medicine, Construction, Design, Structure, Coordination, Economy, Politics, Diet, Physiology, Psychology, House, Work and Rest, Family, Neighborhood, Unit, Courtship, Celebrity, Association, Clothes and Adornment, Opening, Celestial Body, etc.
X. Significance of the Great Balance Theory in five aspects:
1. Philosophical significance: The Great Balance Theory, as a new, popular applied philosophy, advocates the proper separation of “theoretical study and popularization in practice” to make people personally experience the guiding function of philosophy.
2. Social significance: Play a “game” according to “quasi-balance – orderly increase and decrease of overall interests.” Each should stay in his proper position and do his duty. And then each can attain his ambition while following social convention.
3. Biological significance: Based on the criterion of “quasi-balance”, it can strengthen man’s awareness of “living and dying with nature,” build a pure, simple and warm home for human activities, and reach a self-managed harmonious level.
4. Significance in association: It recommends a fundamental rule for association: “Be harmonious but tolerant of difference; practice benevolence according to the common principle; associate according to the priority of position; and it is the people who are to comment.” And it helps people to straighten out the relationship between “what you want to do” and “what you should do.”
5. Significance in thinking: a. It is not scientific to consider something is either this or that. We can see things fair but irrational everywhere in reality, rational but illegal, legal but unfair. Nothing is plain as a dish of white beancurd and green scallions (meaning “as clear as day”).
b. It is more harmful of Left in form but Right in essence. Development of all things is limited by “appropriateness”; any actions exceeding the limit or falling vacant will run counter to wishes. Too much care and no method will always turn good things to bad.
c. Man of great wisdom can treat things well. Nothing in the world has no opposite or can get rid of its opposite. People should learn to cooperate with the opposite equally for mutual profit, win-win and common development. Such is great wisdom.
d. A wise man deals no trivia. Ordinary people always want to do a great, earthshaking deed. But a thousand-li journey begins with the first step; and great deeds begin with small ones. Ordinary people who can persist to do small things well are also great.
e. Often grasp “ideas.” Things are complicated as well as simple. It’s nothing more than “the fundamental and the incidental, the start and the end, the early and the late.” When something happens, the first thing is to “have an idea.” Goal and motivation is very important. An error the breadth of a single hair can lead you a thousand li astray.
XI. The theoretical basis of the Great Balance Theory is the Theory of Relativity holding that nothing is absolute. And thus, the Great Balance Theory is not solely subject to materialism, idealism, metaphysics, physics, theology, science, being, or cognition. But it is not pragmatism. It is subject only to reality, change, comfort, properness, nature, social harmony, people’s satisfaction, truth seeking, endless breeding, and is a theory of applicability combining rational goal, scientific method and right means of gentlemen to obtain wealth.
The Applied Philosophical Balance Theory is always open. It progresses with the times, incessantly absorbs essence of human wisdom in ancient and present times, continuously amends, supplements and improves itself, and, in abreast with the times, focuses on research and application with a clear aim. It does not pay much attention to any particular school of religion, theology, philosophy, natural sciences or other new and old doctrines. The Great Balance Theory will keep in abreast with the times to absorb, integrate, transform, and select from whatever helps the “orderly increase of overall interest” and common people are satisfied and happy with, and continue the process without sectarian bias forever.
Actually, such should have been human philosophy long ago. The human history is originally a history on man’s striving for self-balance. And each subject of scientific studies is a balance theory about a specific field.
The Applied Philosophical Balance Theory is not the unity of past philosophies, but the “integration of philosophical classics.” The Great Balance Theory is not “an ideology about the unity of the world” but a new brand in the “supermarket of philosophies.” Following the criterion of “quasi-balance,” it seeks the natural combination of diversity and unity. Whether the Great Balance Theory can exist and how long it will exist depends on its accomplishment – its aid to subsistence. We just recommend it as an “answer sheet” for us to complete the mission.
As for the topic of “balance,” President Hu Jintao once said: “As long as the world community is coordinated, balanced and developing universally, we can realize the stability and lasting peace of the world. We should explore the topic in an all-round and thorough way and make concerted effort to solve it.”
总之，大平衡认为： 世界是平衡的。没有平衡就没有世界。宇宙总公式： E ≈ -E E = MC2 或 F引≈-F引（正能量E约等于负能量 -E ）
In summary, the Great Balance Theory holds: Te world is balanced; without balance, there is no world. Positive energy E equals negative energy E ≈ -E E = MC2 或 F引≈-F引
“With each epoch-making discovery in the field of natural sciences, materialism is certainly to change its form. ” —— p.224, Volume IV, Karl Marx and Friendrich Engels
As long as people are willing, they can set up laws for nature, though they should see whether nature permits. ——wen jiabao
Summary of Volume I
This volume gives, starting from the Introduction, a brief introduction to the philosophy in the eyes of common people – the Great Balance Theory and the general reason for its appearance. And then starting from practice -- man’s first need, it progresses from the perceptual to the rational knowledge – the Great Balance Theory, emphasizing that “balance” is dynamic, relative, of self cause, self conduct, natural presence, and self existence, and is usually achieved by struggle. The ultimate goal of the Great Balance Theory is endless development of all the things in the world. The Great Balance Theory advises man to find his proper place, straighten out the relationship between “what you want to do” and “what you should do,” and follow the principle of applicability – “do as you should do, stop as you should stop, and refrain from going too far.”